statistics 符號表 b = y intercept of a line CLT = Central Limit Theoremd = difference between paired datadf or ν “nu” =degrees of freedom in a Student’s t or χ2 distributionE = maximum error of the estimatef = frequencyf/n = relative frequencyHo = null hypothesisHa or H1 = alternative hypothesisIQR = interquartile range,Q3?Q1m = slope of a linen = sample size, number of data points,or number of trials in a probability experiment 圖片參考：http://www.tc3.edu/instruct/sbrown/pic/paren_nx.gif or nCx = number ofcombinations of n things taken x at a time = number ofdifferent ways you could pick x things whenyou have a set of n things to choose from and order doesn’tmatter.nPx = number ofpermutations of n things taken x at a timep = probability value. P(A) = the probability of event A. 圖片參考：http://www.tc3.edu/instruct/sbrown/stat/pic/pof-nota.gif = probability of not-A, theprobability that A does not happenP(B | A) = the probabilitythat event B will happen, given that event A definitelyhappens.P80 or P80 =80th percentile (Pk orPk = k-th percentile)q = probability of failure in binomialdistribution, equal to 1 ? pQ1 or Q1 = firstquartile (Q3 or Q3 =third quartile)R2 = coefficient of determinationSEM = standard error of the mean (symbol isσx?)SEP = standard error of the proportion (symbol isσp?)SS( ) = sum of squares of deviations. x = a variable or a data value (raw score). ? “y-hat” = y value predicted fora given x by using the regression equationz = standard score or z-score. z(area) orzarea = the z-score, such that thatmuch of the area under the normal curve lies to the right of that z.This is not a multiplication!α “alpha” = significance level in hypothesistest, or acceptable probability of a Type I error ;1?α = confidence levelβ “beta” = in a hypothesis test, theacceptable probability of a Type II error;1?β is called the power of thetestσx? “sigma-sub-x-bar” = standard error of the mean σp? “sigma-sub-p-prime” = standard error of the proportion∑“sigma” = summation.χ2 “chi-squared” = distribution formultinomial experiments and contingency tables